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    100 years ago, celebrations marking the end of the First World War Spanish

    Perhaps until recently, the Spanish flu has been what some people call a "forgotten pandemic." But it was a great worldwide calamity. In terms of the number of deaths, we are saying 50 to 100 million, much more than the casualties of the First World War.

    100 years ago, celebrations marking the end of the First World War Spanish  
    Approximately around May, April, and May 1918, when World War I butchery is known, it is graphic and horrendous, but at the same time, this unknown enemy is beginning to sweep across the United States, Europe, the trenches, and the Spanish press records it and they call it the 'Spanish flu' because they are neutral. At that time, in the 1920s, they estimated that perhaps 20 million had died. At the end of the 20th century, that number rose to 25 million.
    In the 21st century, with scientists and historians now coming together to work much more closely, that number has now increased from fifty to one hundred million people killed. This virus killed more people in the first 25 weeks than HIV / AIDS in 25 years, horrible! Those mortality statistics are staggering. We don't know exactly why some strains of the flu are so much more severe than others and why some of them would be more likely to kill people or cause very serious illnesses. The special thing about avian and pandemic viruses is that they replicate deep in our lungs.

     When our cells detect this, they trigger a very strong immune response that leads to fluid and white blood cells entering our lungs and restricting the amount of air space we have to breathe. The symptoms are very graphic and very striking, so you know that some people are said to have drowned in their own phlegm, so if it was hitting or affecting the lungs, people would gush blood from their ears and noses. Descriptions of people who turned blue or purple so you know it was really very severe and people who just fell out on the street. and historians are still looking to see why.

    There really are two ways people died in 1918: they died from the initial flu infection, or they died from an enormously strong immune response to that virus when their lungs filled with fluids by trying to attack the virus that entered their lungs. So traditionally, everyone said, `` Well, the trenches are the conditions of war and that's why it was so fatal, but when you think about it, you know how it spread so quickly across the world to places that are not part of the theater ''. of war. I think the traditional explanation is that he starts in Kansas in a military camp and then the troops take him to the trenches, Europe, but there are still many, many unknowns. Therefore, mathematical modelers have long been interested in the 1918 pandemic and one of the questions is to try to untangle how it spread across the world and exactly what the routes have been.

    With perfect information, you could work backward and try to infer where it came from. Where do you get to a country, do you get there multiple times or thinking about several countries, where is the first place? If you understand the origin of a pandemic, then you understand where it is coming from and you may be able to stop it in the future. Almost certainly it was originally the avian flu, but we also know that the flu or something very similar to it was in pigs at the same time.

     Maybe it's someone who works closely with birds or who works closely with pigs or has some other exposure like that. One of the big questions really open in influenza research and the public health of influenza is: how does the virus adapt from one species to another, how, for example, a virus in pigs or birds enters humans and then start transmitting? So the key question is: how does the virus adapt within that person to stop being a pig virus or a bird virus and become a human virus? in other words, to be able to transmit from human to human and it is probably a very rapid evolutionary process that is occurring within that human and in many cases it will not be successful, but in some cases, we will and then the virus can begin to spread among humans and become a flu pandemic and then remain in humans as regular seasonal flu. Just as people were celebrating Armistice Day and there was hope that he was dying, a much more deadly and virulent tension re-emerged. So this second wave really spread like a forest fire that affected a third or a quarter of the world's population and was short-lived, so it was depleted soon after, perhaps in 1920/1921, but it was in some sense of short duration. What happened was that the virus continued to spread between humans, in fact.

    100 years ago, celebrations marking the end of the First World War Spanish  
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